Farm Mechanization

1.Name of the Technology: Automatic Spray Pump for Fruit Orchards.

Description of Technology: Faridkot district modified the rotor pump sprayer according to his need for spraying in Kinnow Orchard. He has installed the spray pump on 1500 liter capacity tank. The tank has been kept in a manner so that it trail behind the tractor in the same way as the trolley. High pressure spray pump of Sigma Company was used for pumping liquid, so as to pump the liquid easily to higher heights. Korean guns were attached ahead of the pump (for the purpose of nozzles) to spray the chemicals in very fine mist form on the plants. This innovation helped him in saving of 50% of water and chemicals in comparison to rotor pump used for spraying. He was using 400 litre drum with rotor pump and guns of Sigma Company but after adopting this new spray pump having Korean guns he is able to cover one hectare with 200 litre of water. This has not only saved water and chemical but also the labour hours in spraying. This is because of the nozzles that produce very fine mist and cover the plant thoroughly. This helped in controlling the diseases, insects and pests more precisely. As a result the orchard was free from diseases and insects and pest, and is now getting better returns than earlier from the same orchard. Now, there are about 50 Kinnow growing farmers who have adopted his innovative method of spraying.

2.Name of the Technology: Small farm mechanization through Custom Hiring Centres for farm machinery.

Description of Technology: Mechanization brings in timeliness and precision to agricultural operations, greater field coverage over a short period, cost-effectiveness, efficiency in use of resources and applied inputs, conservation of available soil moisture under stress conditions and provision of adequate drainage of excess rain and floodwaters. Custom hiring centres (CHCs) for farm implements were established in 100 NICRA villages which could successfully empower farmers to tide over the shortage of labour and improve efficiency of agricultural operations. A committee of farmers' nominated by the gram sabha manages the custom hiring centre. The rates for hiring the machines/ implements are decided by the Village Climate Risk Management Committee (VCRMC). This committee also uses the revenue generated from hiring charges for repair and maintenance of the implements and remaining amount goes into the revolving fund. There are 27 different types of farm machinery stocked in 100 CHCs, the most popular are rotavator, zero till drill, drum seeder, multi-crop planter, power weeder and chaff cutter. Each centre was established at a capital cost of Rs 6.25 lakhs funded by the NICRAproject.

3.Name of the Technology: Vegetable Preservator.

Description of Technology: It is made up of fibre reinforced plastic for its longer durability. It consists of two cylindrical baskets with circular holes all around their periphery. Smaller basket is inserted in larger one with one-inch gap between them. Pine grass mats are placed all around in the gap between baskets. A tubular water tank is placed on top. Low discharge drippers are fixed at a bottom surface of tank so that the water is continuously dipped on to the mats. The mats absorb the water and are continuously wetted. Excess water drains out through circular path at bottom of outer basket and outlet tube. The drained water is collected in a bottle. The whole structure is placed on a steel tripod stand to enable the drain water collection. The button type low discharge irrigation drippers commonly available in the market were selected and fixed to bottom surface of circular tank. Tank design is wider on top and tapered towards bottom to enable free movement of water into drip inlet. Inlet of dripper is embedded to tank bottom surface during molding. The dripper outlet is threaded to inlet by rotating in clockwise direction. The dripper discharge can be controlled within some limit by rotating dripper outlet clockwise or anticlockwise. Discharge is minimum when dripper is fully tightened position. The water in the tank enters into inlet of dripper and moves through a designed micro size path to outlet. Since this path is very small it allows a controlled water drops out on pine grass chamber. About 4-6 drippers depend on size and tank are sufficient to keep pine grass wet. Performance: The performance of a preservator device was evaluated to study the enhancement of shelf life of different type of vegetables/fruits, to study the impact of storage tank levels on discharge of drippers, correlation between ambient temperature and inside temperature during different seasons. Specifications It is available in three models based on the vegetable storage capacity of the container. Model 1: 5 kg capacity Model 2: 15 kg. capacity Model 3 : 50 kg capacity Advantages • CRIDA Preservator keeps the storage chamber temperature at 18-250C, which is 8-100C less than the room temperature. • The higher humidity (around 80-85%) with good aeration inside the chamber helps in increasing the shelf life of the produce. • Shelf life of the produce can be extended to 7 to 10 days based on the product. • The unit is portable which helps in easy transportation of fruits/vegetables. • This structure reduces the handling and transportation damages. • Allows the bio-respiration of the fresh fruits and vegetables and helps in enriching nutritional quality and enzymes development. • Prevents the distress sale by the farmers and nutrient losses Suitability It is suitable to preserve all kinds of fruits and vegetable which are in semi ripened stage. Approximate cost: 5 kg capacity: Rs. 1800/- 15 kg capacity: Rs.2750/- 50 kg capacity : Rs.3600/-.

4.Name of the Technology: Groundnut stripper.

Description of Technology: Groundnut is a major oil seed crop grown in India, however, most of the cultivation operations are done by conventional devices which requires higher cost of operation. Among all operations, groundnut pod stripping is predominantly a manual operation. Presently, ground nut pods are stripped manually immediately after harvesting or left the field for 4-5 days for sun drying and then stripped manually. The cost of manual stripping of groundnut ranges from 3000-4000 per hectare, which comes to 18-20% of total production cost. Deficit of human labour during peak harvesting season is one of the major constraints in recent past, which is leading to shifting groundnut area to other crops. Therefore, development of mechanical groundnut stripping machine becomes inevitable intervention to minimize the operation cost and sustain the area under groundnut in some region. Keeping this point in view groundnut stripper is developed and commercialized Description: This is a hand-held type of ground stripping machine works on principles of impact and shearing force applied to gyrate of pods by series of angular loops fixed on a rotating drum. it consists of a threshing drum with special type of pegs and rotates on a rigid frame (Adake et al., 2004). The stripped pods fall on to the sieve. It is operated by 1 h.p. electric motor. Specifications Mainframe - 800 x 780 x 602 mm Stripping Cylinder - Loop type Diameter of cylinder - 290 mm Length of cylinder - 680 mm Shape of loops - ‘U’ ( ᴓ 6 mm) Number of loops on cylinder - 84 Spacing between loops - 55 mm Length of loops - 75 mm Concave clearance - 45 mm Feeding platform - 770 mm x 210 mm Perforated screen - 720 mm x 450 mm Oscillating mechanism - Cam Weight of groundnut stripper - 130 kg Power transmission - Belt and Pulley Power source -1 hp electric motor Performance of groundnut stripper Optimum cylinder speed - 400 rpm Stripping efficiency - 98% Cleaning efficiency - 95% breakage - Nil Fodder utility - 80% Output capacity (wet pods) -150 kg/h Advantages • Eight times increase in stripping output of four persons • About 83% saving in operation time • 79% saving in operation cost • About 38% higher fodder availability • Early market gain • Higher profitability Suitability to Crops CRIDA groundnut stripper is suitable for all bunch type groundnut varieties. It is specifically designed for stripping of wet pods from the harvested plants Approximate cost: Rs. 17500/- Cost of operation: Rs. 30/quintal.

5.Name of the Technology: CRIDA Herbal dryer.

Description of Technology: CRIDA has developeda Herbal Dryer which uses the Liquid Petroleum Gas as fuel. It mainly consists of a drying chamber with eight cubic meters volume made of 16 gauge mild steel. The drying chamber is made in two layers with 1” gap in between in which glass wool is filled for thermal insulation. A removable stand was kept inside the chamber to arrange the trays for keeping the product, which is to be dried. More than 40 trays (40 cm x 40 cm) can be arranged in a zigzag way so that the hot air moves in a S-shape path. A separate furnace is used to heat the atmospheric air, which is then blown in to the drying chamber with the help of 0.5 h.p. blower. A 6 mm copper plate is used as a heating element in the furnace. Two burners fueled with LPG are placed beneath the copper plate and using a thermostat based electronic relay system the gas flow is controlled in to the burner. Always, the threshold level of gas flow is maintained, to keep the burners lighting even when the relay is in off position. The temperature and humidity inside the drying chamber is measured with the help of the sensors attached to the thermostat-relay control system. A control panel is placed outside the dryer to read and set the temperature. The set temperature is maintained accordingly by controlling the gas flow into the burners. If the drying chamber temperature exceeds the temperature, the relay will cut off the excess flow of gas into the burners. If the temperature reduces inside the drying chamber, the relay will open the gas valve for excess flow in to the burners. Advantages • Accuracy in maintaining the set or required temperatures. • Uniform flow of the hot air into the drying chamber to maintain the required temperature unlike to the normal ovens used for dehydration of the products where the airflow is cut off to • maintain the temperatures. Hence the herbal dryer product is superior to other methods of drying. • The LPG/Biogas provides quick energy flow of gas to regain the set temperature in short time so that there will be no variation in drying product ambient conditions. • The drying cost is reduced as the energy use is optimized since it is automated system. • It reduces the labour cost. • No contamination, no impurities in the dried product. • Precision control provides a better quality product at cheaper rate. Suitability Experiments carried out at CRIDA and at farmers fields indicated that the dryer can be successfully used for drying of medicinal and aromatic, plants like Henna and Senna, Amla vegetables like Tamotoe, ladies finger and other green leaf vegetables like coriander, curryleaf etc (Pratibha et al, 2006). Approximate cost of the Herbal dryer: Rs. 65000/ (42 tray capacity) Cost of operation: The average drying cost of operation would be around Rs. 5-6/ kg of dried product.

6.Name of the Technology: Broad Bed Planter.

Description of Technology: The Broad Bed Furrow planter (BBF planter): It is specifically designed to meet the requirements of rainfed Agriculture in which the soil and water conservation plays a major role in crop production. This helps in in-situ rain water at on farm level during the season apart from sowing the seed and placing the fertilizer on the b at proper depth and placement. The size of the bed vary from 100 to 120 cm based on the tractor track size and also depends on crop geometry.. The broad furrows (20 cm depth with 35 cm top width) formed by the planter helps in conserving the rain water during the season and also works as drainage channels to drain out the excess water if heavy downpour occurs to save the crop during the initial drought and from excess flooding. Description: It consists of a rigid frame with three point hitch mounting arrangement. Two ridgers were fixed on the frame with dimensions of 2500 x 750 mm. The ridger wings are adjustable to form a broad furrow of 25 cm to 45 cm wide according to crop geometry needs and the depth of conservation furrow can be made at 15-25 cm as per the soil conditions. The narrow headed furrow opener opens a small seed furrow on top of the ridge and the seed falls in to the furrow at proper depth based on the tractor hydraulic depth control. The depth of seed in seed furrow varies 25-60 mm. The fertilizer will be delivered in to the furrow through a rotating wheel having cells to fill up the fertilizer. Ridgers are specifically designed to reduce the inversion of top soil to protect the fertility status at top zone which is very much required in light soils. The perfect inclined seed metering mechanism with precision fertilizer mechanism helped in good germination of seed at field level.

7.Name of the Technology: Variable Width Raised Bed Planter.

Description of Technology: Raised beds encourage implements to travel down the furrows which reduce the amount of soil compaction occurring where plants are growing thus the soil have greater ability to hold available plant water allowing greater plant root growth and achieve higher plant yields. Since, raised beds are primarily a field drainage structure aimed at decreasing water logging, it prevents soil saturation during heavy downpour and ultimately enhances crop yields. Crop failure due to water logged conditions is completely eliminated. The developed variable width raised bed planter cum herbicide applicator performs three functions in one operation. It makes bed of required width as per crop geometry, places seeds and fertilizers and applies herbicides in single operation. All three operations at one go reduces tillage, incorporates residues and reduces the number of traffic on soil ensuring principles of conservation agriculture being met effectively while achieving increased yield and productivity. Through the project, it was found that bed planting has production as well as environmental benefits. Production cost is reduced due to less number of tillage operations required, less amount of nitrogen fertilizer or herbicides required, low seed rate and reduced lodging. This system facilitates mechanical and manual weeding. Since the water use efficiency increases, water conservation is improved, soil erosion is controlled, raised bed sowing earns environmental benefits too.

8.Name of the Technology: Castor Sheller.

Description of Technology: Castor shelling machine consists of a threshing drum, concave, feeding tray, set of sieves and blower unit. The machine requires 3 hp, 3- phase electric motor. Castor kernerls are fed manually through a feeder tray, which enters the threshing unit (Srinivas et al., 2004). The castor kernerls are crushed between threshing drum and concave, which causes the breakage of shells without damaging the seeds. The threshed material then falls on inclined screen where the air jet from blower fixed opposite to screen blows away the broken shells, which are lighter in weight. The grains are heavier and slide down the screen and move to grading sieve. The graded grains are separately collected from the outlets. It requires 2 persons for operation. The unit is mounted on the rubberized wheels, because of which it can be easily transported from one place to other place. The castor sheller gave 97% shelling efficiency and 95% cleaning efficiency with output of 700 kg/hr. The shelling cost was significantly reduced to Rs. 5 per quintal. Specifications Dimensions: (Length X Width X Height) : 2400 X 770 X 1580 mm Weight : 175 Kgs Threshing cylinder : 350 mm dia, 495 mm length Blower : 320 mm dia, 620 mm length Power source : 3 h.p, 3 phase Advantages • It reduces the drudgery • It saves 90 % of labour compared to the traditional method • Higher shelling and cleaning efficiency provides quality seed • It can be used on hiring basis at village level • Cost of operation is much cheaper than other threshers Suitability: For shelling and cleaning the castor of small and bold varieties Approximate cost: Rs. 70000/- Cost of operation: Rs. 20/quintal.

9.Name of the Technology: Tractor Drawn Weeder.

Description of Technology: Tractor Drawn Weeder Tractor drawn cultivator frame is used to mount different sizes of straight and V- blades depending on crop row spacing . This can cover 3-5 rows at a time. This is most suitable in the field sown by tractor drawn planter. If the row to row spacing of crops is less, we can recommend to use the appropriate weeder along with tractor mounted with narrow width tyres (around 25 cm width) so that the plant damage can be avoided. Normally one to two weedings with this tool will create the weed free environment and the yields will also be improved. Specifications Field coverage : 6-7 ha/ day Source of power : Tractor Operating width : 30-45 cm Advantages • Faster coverage • Efficient weed control • Creating soil mulch • Low cost of operation • Effective earthing up with good crop anchoring with adjacent soil Suitability It is suitable to the broad row spaced crops in which tractor wheels can easily go. Approximate cost: Rs. 1500- (3 blades set cost) Cost of operation: Rs. 1200/ha.

10.Name of the Technology: Bullock Drawn Weeder.

Description of Technology: Bullock Drawn Weeder A metal tool frame on which a single narrow shovel with shank is mounted at front center of the frame and at rear a blade matching to crop row spacing is mounted (Fig. 13). A pipe beam is attached to the frame, which is hitched by a pair of bullocks. The blades are either straight or V – shaped depending upon the field condition and weed intensity. Since all components are made of metal, it is long lasting with negligible maintenance. The tools, not only effective in removing the weeds but also creating a concave structure between the rows for capturing the rain water and also supporting the plants with soil mass. This requires one pair of bullock and one person. Specifications Field coverage : 0.8-0.9 ha/ day Source of power : one pair of bullocks Operation blade width: 300-450 cm Length of the beam : 3000 mm Advantages • Light weight • Low cost • Controls weeds effectively and cover the area much faster than conventional tool and does the earthing up operation. Suitability It is suitable to the broad row spaced crops where bullocks can easily enter. Approximate cost: Rs. 2250/- Cost of operation: Rs. 1500/ha.

11.Name of the Technology: Nine-Row Planter.

Description of Technology: Timely seeding is essential in rainfed farming. Delayed sowing beyond normal window period prolong growing causing moisture stress on maturing crops. With the current seeding practices, farmers are unable to sow the crop at appropriate time because the conventional devices are slow in operation. In other hand, these devices require high labour input, thereby, increasing cost of production. Mostly unskilled farm hands drop the seed and fertilizer leading to gaps and bunching of plants in a row which results in non-uniform crop stand. The non-uniform crop stand create imbalance in utilization of nutrients and moisture reducing the crop productivity. To overcome these limitations and improve the productivity at reduced cost of production, improved designs of ferti-seed planters are needed. CRIDA developed user friendly models of seed-cum-ferti-drills and planters to meet the location-specific needs of the farmers. Field experiments were conducted and the models were upgraded and scaled up to cater the need of different categories of dryland farmers based on size of holding, draft power available and their purchasing power (Mayande et al., 2004). This planter is introduced to sow groundnut, soybean and other closely spaced crops with mechanical advantage and intercropping facility. The inclined plate seed metering mechanism will meet the precise seed to seed distance and maintain the recommended seed rate. The seed damage is negligible for the seeds like groundnut and other crops. Specifications Field capacity : 7-8 ha/day Source of power : 35 h.p.Tractor Overall frame dimensions Length : 2500 mm Width : 580 mm Height : 1100 mm Box Dimensions Length : 2500 mm Width : 600 mm Height : 380 mm Weight : 295-310 Kgs Advantages • Nine-row sowing at a time • Suitable for all intercropping systems. • Faster coverage • Labour and seed saving • Uniform seed to seed distance Suitability: It is suitable to medium to large size farms. Approximate cost: Rs. 43500/- Cost of operation: Rs. 500- 800/- ha as per the tractor hiring charges.

12.Name of the Technology: Six-Row Planter.

Description of Technology: There are many farmers in rainfed regions who own tractors. To suit their power availability six row planter was developed. The mechanism for seeding and fertilizing is similar to 4- row planter unit which was scaled up to match tractor powered tiller frame. The design consist of hopper box for seed and fertilizer, drive mechanism, mounting frame, seed tubes and metering plates. Row to row spacing can be maintained by adjusting the shanks on the frame as per the recommended spacing. A chain or wooden plank or a iron pipe can be fitted or hinged at the back to cover the furrows after seed and fertlizer placement if needed. Specifications Field coverage : 6-7 ha/ day Source of power : Tractor Overall dimensions : 1650 X 580 X 960 mm (length Width X height) Main frame : 1659 X 580 Seed box : 1630 X 430 X 300 Shank : 450 X 65 X 20 (length Xwidth X thick) Weight : 235 to 240 kg Advantages • Six-row sowing and fertilizing at a time • Effective soil covering • Uniform seed to seed distance • Faster coverage • Increased crop yield and profit • Time saving by 80 % and labour saving • 30 % saving in seed and fertilizer when compared to the conventional. Suitability: For all types of soils and crops. Approximate cost: Rs. 41000/- Cost of operation: Rs. 600 - 800/ha based on the tractor hiring charges.

13.Name of the Technology: Three Row/Four-Row Planter.

Description of Technology: Timely seeding is essential in rainfed farming. Delayed sowing beyond normal window period prolong growing causing moisture stress on maturing crops. With the current seeding practices, farmers are unable to sow the crop at appropriate time because the conventional devices are slow in operation. In other hand, these devices require high labour input, thereby, increasing cost of production. Mostly unskilled farm hands drop the seed and fertilizer leading to gaps and bunching of plants in a row which results in non-uniform crop stand. The non-uniform crop stand create imbalance in utilization of nutrients and moisture reducing the crop productivity. To overcome these limitations and improve the productivity at reduced cost of production, improved designs of ferti-seed planters are needed. CRIDA developed user friendly models of seed-cum-ferti-drills and planters to meet the location-specific needs of the farmers. Field experiments were conducted and the models were upgraded and scaled up to cater the need of different categories of dryland farmers based on size of holding, draft power available and their purchasing power (Mayande et al., 2004). Three Row /Four-Row Planter Description: The upgraded frame of this planter is made to accommodate three row or four row Seed and Fertilizer box planter configuration. This planter uses the inclined plate mechanism and is developed to meet the requirements of medium scale farmers. The depth of seeding is adjustable. The seed metering mechanism is based on inclined plate principle which is the same as for single or two row planters. It consists of a seed and fertilizer box which is mounted on a rectangular wheeled frame, guide wheels, drive mechanism, furrow openers, metering plates and seed tubes.

14.Name of the Technology: Two-row planter.

Description of Technology: Timely seeding is essential in rainfed farming. Delayed sowing beyond normal window period prolong growing causing moisture stress on maturing crops. With the current seeding practices, farmers are unable to sow the crop at appropriate time because the conventional devices are slow in operation. In other hand, these devices require high labour input, thereby, increasing cost of production. Mostly unskilled farm hands drop the seed and fertilizer leading to gaps and bunching of plants in a row which results in non-uniform crop stand. The non-uniform crop stand create imbalance in utilization of nutrients and moisture reducing the crop productivity. To overcome these limitations and improve the productivity at reduced cost of production, improved designs of ferti-seed planters are needed. CRIDA developed user friendly models of seed-cum-ferti-drills and planters to meet the location-specific needs of the farmers. Field experiments were conducted and the models were upgraded and scaled up to cater the need of different categories of dryland farmers based on size of holding, draft power available and their purchasing power (Mayande et al., 2004). Two-row planter Description: This is an upgraded model of plough planter with separate furrow openers for each row. It consists of a rectangular frame, hopper box, drive mechanism, guide wheels, two furrow openers, metering plates, seed tubes and other accessories. The inclined plate mechanism for seeding and agitator-orifice mechanism for fertilizing are used. The metering plates for groundnut, maize and other crops are designed to meet farmer’s needs. The same metering plates can be used for single row, two row and four row planters. The gauge wheels with predetermined standard size are used for depth adjustment. The row spacing is balanceable with lateral shifting of furrow openers on the frame (Fig.3). It is recommended to the regions where the average bullock height and draft power is less. It can also be used in hilly regions.

15.Name of the Technology: Plough Planter.

Description of Technology: Timely seeding is essential in rainfed farming. Delayed sowing beyond normal window period prolong growing causing moisture stress on maturing crops. With the current seeding practices, farmers are unable to sow the crop at appropriate time because the conventional devices are slow in operation. In other hand, these devices require high labour input, thereby, increasing cost of production. Mostly unskilled farm hands drop the seed and fertilizer leading to gaps and bunching of plants in a row which results in non-uniform crop stand. The non-uniform crop stand create imbalance in utilization of nutrients and moisture reducing the crop productivity. To overcome these limitations and improve the productivity at reduced cost of production, improved designs of ferti-seed planters are needed. CRIDA developed user friendly models of seed-cum-ferti-drills and planters to meet the location-specific needs of the farmers. The planter has an inclined plate seed metering mechanism to obtain uniform intra-row spacing which is crucial to minimize competition for water and nutrient. This unit is supported by two wheels; pegged wheel at left, and plain wheel at right. The metering plates are rotated by the power transmitted by drive wheel through shaft and bevel gears. The cells in the metering plate are cast to match the seed size and shape. The number of seed cells per plate is designed to obtain desired seed spacing within a row.

16.Name of the Technology: MANUALWEEDER.

Description of Technology: Weeding is considered as most critical operation in rainfed agriculture. As the resources are limited, they compete with the main crop if not removed and effects the crop yields drastically. Apart from this, the limited moisture availability during the season reduces the number of optimum weeding days. To overcome this, CRIDA has developed improved manual weeders for small farmers (Mayande et al., 2004). Manual weeder Description: This is manually pushed wheeled device followed by vertically adjustable sweep or blade mounted on a tool frame. A long handle with wooden grip provides most comfort to men or women operating the tool. It is simple, low cost and easily adoptable equipment. It consists of 3 blades which can fixes as per the width of operation. Specifications Field capacity- 0.14-0.16 ha/day Wheel dia.- 1540 mm Adjustable flat (Length X width X thickness) - 430X20X3 mm Tyne frame (Length X width X thickness - 590X20X5 mm Tyne(Length X width X thickness - 165X10X10 mm Intercultural blade Length X width X thickness - 165X20X5 mm Advantages • Low cost • Compatible with operator • Saving in time (72%) • Saving in labour Suitability Weeding in closely spaced crops and vegetable garden, It is a women friendly tool. Approximate cost: Rs. 1100/- Cost of operation: Rs. 1000/ha.